1No other gods before Me.
In view of His sovereignty and goodness (vs. 2), we are commanded to have no other gods before the Lord.
2You shall not make for yourself a carved image.
The first and second commandments go hand in hand, both emphasizing the need to give our worship exclusively to the one true God. The Israelites violated this commandment and crafted their own graven image, a golden calf, even before Moses came down from the Mountain.
3You shall not take the name of the Lord your God in vain.
To take God’s name in vain is to use it in an empty or meaningless way. Because “there is no other name under heaven given among men by which we must be saved,” we must be careful to instead treat the name of God with honor and reverence (Acts 4:12).
4Remember the Sabbath day.
In wisdom and grace, God commanded His people to observe a weekly day of rest. The Sabbath was to be observed in imitation of God’s own work in Creation (Exod. 20:11), as well as His redemptive work (Deut. 5:15).
5Honor your father and your mother.
The fifth commandment is reiterated by the apostle Paul who describes it as “the first commandment with promise” (Eph. 6:2). Honoring God means honoring the authority He has placed in our lives.
6You shall not murder.
The taking of human life is expressly forbidden. Jesus elaborates on this commandment in the Sermon on the Mount, revealing that the sin of murder begins in the heart (Matt. 5:21-22).
7You shall not commit adultery.
The sanctity of marriage is given noteworthy attention throughout Scripture. Christ reminds us in Matthew 5:27-30 that the marriage relationship must be guarded diligently.
8You shall not steal.
Theft is forbidden by God. Instead, we are to be content with what we have and trust God to supply all our need in Christ Jesus (1 Tim. 6:6; Phil. 4:19).
9You shall not bear false witness.
Honesty must always characterize our speech and conduct. To bear false witness against our neighbor is an affront to a holy God Who is Himself "the truth and the life" (John 14:6).
10You shall not covet.
God has promised to meet all our needs, both spiritual and physical, and we should therefore be content with whatever He has provided (Phil. 4:19; Matt. 6:33; Heb. 13:5).